Thyroid nodules

What are the risks of thyroid nodules?

(1) WebMD, Picture of the Thyroid, https://www.webmd.com/women/picture-of-the-thyroid#1, 2020; (2) Cooper D.S. et al. Revised American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer, THYROID, Volume 19, Number 11, 2009; (3) Kraft S., What are thyroid nodules?, https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/185672, 2018; (4) Moore K., What You Should Know About Thyroid Nodules, https://www.healthline.com/health/thyroid-nodule, 2019; (5) Korkusuz H. et al., Local thyroid tissue ablation by high-intensity focused ultrasound: Effects on thyroid function and first human feasibility study with hot and cold thyroid nodules; International Journal of Hyperthermia, Volume 30, Issue 7, 2014; (6) MyThyroid.com, Thyroid Nodules, http://www.mythyroid.com/thyroidnodules.html, 2005; (7) Stöppler M.C., Hyperthyroidism, https://www.medicinenet.com/hyperthyroidism/article.htm, 2020

Thyroid nodules treatments without surgery
(1) Kraft S., What are thyroid nodules?, https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/185672, 2018; (2) Moore K., What You Should Know About Thyroid Nodules, https://www.healthline.com/health/thyroid-nodule, 2019; (3) Korkusuz H. et al., Local thyroid tissue ablation by high-intensity focused ultrasound: Effects on thyroid function and first human feasibility study with hot and cold thyroid nodules; International Journal of Hyperthermia, Volume 30, Issue 7, 2014; (4) Shada A.R. et al., Low-risk differentiated thyroid cancer: The need for selective treatment, Annals of Surgical Oncology volume 4, pages 328–333, 1997; (5) Giuffrida D. and Gharib H., Controversies in the management of cold, hot, and occult thyroid nodules, The American Journal of Medicine, Volume 99, Issue 6, 1995; (6) Thomas C.G. and Croom R.D., Current management of the patient with autonomously functioning nodular goiter, Surg Clin North Am. ;67(2):315-28, 1987; (7) RadiologyInfo.org, Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy, https://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/info.cfm?pg=radioiodine, 2020; (8) British Thyroid Foundation, Treatment of an overactive or enlarged thyroid gland with radioactive iodine; https://www.btf-thyroid.org/treatment-of-an-over-active-or-enlarged-thyroid-gland-with-radioactive-iodine; 2019; (9) Kovatcheva R.D. and Zaletel K., High-intensity focused ultrasound for thyroid nodule ablation: the evidence to date; Reports in Medical Imaging, Volume 2017:10 Pages 9—16; 2017; (10) Lang B. et al.; Two-year efficacy of single-session high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation of benign thyroid nodules; European Society of Radiology, 2018; (11) Lang B. et al; Single-session High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) Treatment in Large-sized Benign Thyroid Nodules; Thyroid, 2017

How do thyroid nodules appear?
(1) Cooper D.S. et al. Revised American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer, THYROID, Volume 19, Number 11, 2009; (2) Kraft S., What are thyroid nodules?, https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/185672, 2018; (3) NHS, Causes: Overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism), https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/overactive-thyroid-hyperthyroidism/causes/, 2019; (4) Castro M.R. and Gharib H., Thyroid nodules and cancer, When to wait and watch, when to refer; Postgraduate Medicine, Volume 107, Issue 1, 2000; (5) British Thyroid Foundation, Thyroid nodules and swellings, https://www.btf-thyroid.org/thyroid-nodules-and-swellingsleaflet, 2018

What is the difference between hot and cold thyroid nodules?
(1) Revised American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer The American Thyroid Association (ATA) Guidelines Taskforce, https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/pdfplus/10.1089/thy.2009.0110; (2) What are thyroid nodules?, Sy Kraft on September 20, 2018, https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/185672#causes; (3) Thyroid Nodule, Chapter · January 2017, Markus Eszlinger, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/315865427_Thyroid_Nodule; (4) What You Should Know About Thyroid Nodules, reviewed by Maria S. Prelipcean, MD on July 15, 2019, Written by Kristeen Moore, https://www.healthline.com/health/thyroid-nodule; (5) http://www.mythyroid.com/thyroidnodules.html

What is a thyroid nodule?
(1)Picture of the Thyroid, Human Anatomy, Matthew Hoffman, MD, https://www.webmd.com/women/picture-of-the-thyroid#1; (2) https://www.thyroid.org/thyroid-nodules/; (3) Revised American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer The American Thyroid Association (ATA) Guidelines Taskforce on Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer David S. Cooper, M.D.1 et al., 2009, https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/pdfplus/10.1089/thy.2009.0110; (4) Thyroid nodules and cancer, When to wait and watch, when to refer, Maria R. Castro , MD &Hossein Gharib , MD, Pages 113-124, 30 Jun 2015, https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3810/pgm.2000.01.808; (5) Thyroid Nodule
Chapter · January 2017, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-29195-6_6-1, In book: Thyroid Diseases, pp.1-38, Markus Eszlinger, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/315865427_Thyroid_Nodule; (6) What You Should Know About Thyroid Nodules, reviewed by Maria S. Prelipcean, MD on July 15, 2019, Written by Kristeen Moore, https://www.healthline.com/health/thyroid-nodule; (5) http://www.mythyroid.com/thyroidnodules.html; (7) http://www.mythyroid.com/thyroidnodules.html

How is a thyroid nodule diagnosed?
(1) https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/185672#causes;
(2) What You Should Know About Thyroid Nodules, reviewed by Maria S. Prelipcean, MD on July 15, 2019, Written by Kristeen Moore, https://www.healthline.com/health/thyroid-nodule; (3) http://www.mythyroid.com/thyroidnodules.html; (4) https://www.thyroid.org/thyroid-nodules/

Fibroadenoma

Are fibroadenoma painful?

(1) NHS, Breast Lumps, https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/breast-lump/, 2017; (2) John Hopkins Medicine, Common Benign Lumps, https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/common-benign-lumps, 2020; (3) Breast Cancer Now, Fibroadenoma, https://breastcancernow.org/information-support/have-i-got-breast-cancer/benign-breast-conditions/fibroadenoma, 2020; (4) Cerrato F. and Labow B.I., Diagnosis and Management of Fibroadenomas in the Adolescent Breast, Semin Plast Surg. 27(1): 23–25, 2013; (5) NHS, Breast pain, https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/breast-pain/, 2017

What is the difference between fibroadenoma and breast cancer?
(1) NHS, Breast Lumps, https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/breast-lump/, 2017; (2) John Hopkins Medicine, Common Benign Lumps, https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/common-benign-lumps, 2020; (3) Stony Brook Cancer Center, Different Kinds of Breast Lumps, https://cancer.stonybrookmedicine.edu/breast-cancer-team/patients/bse/breastlumps, 2020; (4) Breast Cancer Now, Fibroadenoma, https://breastcancernow.org/information-support/have-i-got-breast-cancer/benign-breast-conditions/fibroadenoma, 2020; (5) NHS, Overview: Breast cancer in women, https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/breast-cancer/, 2017

The factors that favour the appearance of fibroadenomas?
(1) Breast Cancer Now, Fibroadenoma, https://breastcancernow.org/information-support/have-i-got-breast-cancer/benign-breast-conditions/fibroadenoma, 2020; (2) John Hopkins Medicine, Common Benign Lumps, https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/common-benign-lumps, 2020; (3) Ajmal M. and Van Fossen K., Breast Fibroadenoma, Review from StatPearls Publishing, Treasure Island (FL), 2018; (4) Halls, Fibroadenoma of the breast, https://breast-cancer.ca/fibro-noma/, 2019; (5) Stony Brook Cancer Center, Different Kinds of Breast Lumps, https://cancer.stonybrookmedicine.edu/breast-cancer-team/patients/bse/breastlumps, 2020

Is fibroadenoma a cyst?
(1)https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/breast-lump/; (2)What are some common types of benign breast lumps?, https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/common-benign-lumps

Can fibroadenoma grow?
(1) https://breastcancernow.org/information-support/have-i-got-breast-cancer/benign-breast-conditions/fibroadenoma; (2) Fibroadenomas of the Breast, https://www.cancer.org/cancer/breast-cancer/non-cancerous-breast-conditions/fibroadenomas-of-the-breast.html

Varicose veins

Are varicose veins age related?
(1) NHS, Overview Varicose veins, https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/varicose-veins/, 2017; (2) Thaler E. et al. Compression stockings prophylaxis of emergent varicose veins in pregnancy: a prospective randomised controlled study; SWISS MED WKLY;131:659–662; 2001; (3) MedicineNet, Varicose Veins and Spider Veins, https://www.medicinenet.com/varicose_veins/article.htm; 2020; (4) Abramson J.H. et al, The epidemiology of varicose veins. A survey in western Jerusalem; Journal of epidemiology & community health, Vol 35, Issue 3, 1981; (5) Caggiati A. et al. Age-related variations of varicose veins anatomy, J Vasc Surg.;44(6):1291-5, 2006; (6) Evans C.J. et al. Prevalence of varicose veins and chronic venous insufficiency in men and women in the general population: Edinburgh Vein Study; Journal of epidemiology & community health, Vol 53, Issue 3, 1999; (7) VascularCURES, What is Chronic Venous Insufficiency (CVI)?, https://vascularcures.org/chronic-venous-insufficiency/; 2020; (8) Callam M.J.; Epidemiology of varicose veins; British Journal of Surgery, Volume 81, Issue 2, 1994; (9) Laurikka J.O. et al, Risk indicators for varicose veins in forty- to sixty-year-olds in the tampere varicose vein study, World Journal of Surgery volume 26, pages648–651, 2002

Are varicose veins dangerous?
(1) NHS, Overview Varicose veins, https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/varicose-veins/, 2017; (2) Bokhari S., Early Symptoms and Warning Signs of Varicose Veins, https://www.acvcare.com/blog/early-symptoms-and-warning-signs-of-varicose-veins, 2020; (3) Caggiati A. et al. Age-related variations of varicose veins anatomy, J Vasc Surg.;44(6):1291-5, 2006; (4) Kurz X. et al., Do varicose veins affect quality of life? Results of an international population-based study, Journal of Vascular Surgery, Volume 34, Issue 4, 2001; (5) Your.MD, Venous leg ulcers, https://www.your.md/condition/leg-ulcer-venous, 2020

Are varicose veins sore?
(1) NHS, Overview Varicose veins, https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/varicose-veins/, 2017; (2) Bokhari S., Early Symptoms and Warning Signs of Varicose Veins, https://www.acvcare.com/blog/early-symptoms-and-warning-signs-of-varicose-veins, 2020; (3) Stöppler M.C., Leg Pain: Symptoms & Signs, https://www.medicinenet.com/leg_pain/symptoms.htm, 2020; (4) Brazier Y., What to know about diabetic neuropathy, https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/245310, 2019; (5) Christiano D., Why Do My Legs Feel Heavy and How Can I Get Relief?, https://www.healthline.com/health/heavy-legs#causes, 2017; (6) Johnson J., What causes heavy aching legs?, https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/321670, 2018; (7) Delgado A. and Holland K., Everything You Want to Know About Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT), https://www.healthline.com/health/deep-venous-thrombosis, 2018; (8) Eustice C., What You Should Know About Leg Pain, https://www.verywellhealth.com/leg-pain-what-you-should-know-189983, 2020; (9) John Hopkins Medicine, Chronic Venous Insufficiency, https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/chronic-venous-insufficiency, 2020; (10) Eberhardt R.T. et al. Chronic Venous Insufficiency, Circulation, 111:2398–2409, 2005; (11) Your.MD, Venous leg ulcers, https://www.your.md/condition/leg-ulcer-venous, 2020; (12) Caggiati A. et al. Age-related variations of varicose veins anatomy, J Vasc Surg.;44(6):1291-5, 2006

What is venous insufficiency?
(1) John Hopkins Medicine, Chronic Venous Insufficiency, https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/chronic-venous-insufficiency, 2020; (2) Eberhardt R.T. et al. Chronic Venous Insufficiency, Circulation, 111:2398–2409, 2005; (3) NHS, Overview Varicose veins, https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/varicose-veins/, 2017; (4) Ruckley C.V. et al., Telangiectasia in the Edinburgh Vein Study: Epidemiology and Association with Trunk Varices and Symptoms, European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery; Volume 36, Issue 6, 2008; (5) Whiteley M, What are Thread Veins (Spider Veins)?, Whiteley clinic, www.thewhiteleyclinic.co.uk/conditions/thread-veins, 2020

Why do varicose veins come with pregnancy?
(1) NHS, Overview Varicose veins, https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/varicose-veins/, 2017; (2) Bamigboye A.A. and Smyth R., Interventions for varicose veins and leg oedema in pregnancy; Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; 2007; (3) Laurikka J.O. et al, Risk indicators for varicose veins in forty- to sixty-year-olds in the tampere varicose vein study, World Journal of Surgery volume 26, pages648–651, 2002; (4) Thaler E. et al. Compression stockings prophylaxis of emergent varicose veins in pregnancy: a prospective randomised controlled study; SWISS MED WKLY;131:659–662; 2001; (5) American Pregnancy Association, Treating Varicose Veins Naturally During Pregnancy; https://americanpregnancy.org/naturally/treating-varicose-veins-naturally-during-pregnancy/; 2020; (6) Robert A, and Nabatoff M.D., Varicose Veins of Pregnancy; JAMA.;174(13):1712-1716, 1960; (7) KidsHealth, Why Do Some Pregnant Women Get Varicose Veins?; https://kidshealth.org/en/parents/veins.html; 2020

Spider veins and varicose veins, what are the differences?
(1) Whiteley M, What exactly are Varicose Veins?, Whiteley clinic, www.thewhiteleyclinic.co.uk/varicose-veins-treatment/what-are-varicose-veins, 2020; (2) NHS, Overview Varicose veins, https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/varicose-veins/, 2017; (3) Ruckley C.V. et al., Telangiectasia in the Edinburgh Vein Study: Epidemiology and Association with Trunk Varices and Symptoms, European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery; Volume 36, Issue 6, 2008; (4) Whiteley M, What are Thread Veins (Spider Veins)?, Whiteley clinic, www.thewhiteleyclinic.co.uk/conditions/thread-veins, 2020

Varicose veins treatment without surgery and sclerotherapy?
(1) NHS, Overview Varicose veins, https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/varicose-veins/, 2017; (2) Worthington-Kirsch R.L., Injection Sclerotherapy, Semin Intervent Radiol.; 22(3): 209–217. 2005; (3) Whiteley M, Highly Effective Treatment For Varicose Veins, Whiteley clinic, https://thewhiteleyclinic.co.uk/varicose-veins-treatment/, 2020; (4) InformedHealth.org, What can be done about varicose veins, and when is surgery considered?, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK279246/, 2019; (5) NHS, Treatment Varicose veins, https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/varicose-veins/treatment/, 2017; (6) Whiteley M, Venaseal™, Whiteley clinic, https://thewhiteleyclinic.co.uk/procedures/venaseal/, 2020; (7) Whiteley M, Clarivein – Mechanochemical Ablation (MOCA), Whiteley clinic, https://thewhiteleyclinic.co.uk/procedures/clarivein-mechanochemical-ablation-moca/, 2020

Are women more prone to varicose veins than men?
(1)Journal of vascular surgery, https://www.jvascsurg.org/article/S0741-5214(09)02285-X/pdf; (2)The Epidemiology of Varicose Veins: The Framingham Study, American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Volume 4, Issue 2, March–April 1988, Pages 96-101, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0749379718312030; (3) The epidemiology of varicose veins. A survey in western Jerusalem; J H Abramson, C Hopp, L M Epstein, https://jech.bmj.com/content/35/3/213.short
; (4) Prevalence of varicose veins and chronic venous insufficiency in men and women in the general population: Edinburgh Vein Study C J Evans, F G R Fowkes, C V Ruckley, A J Lee, https://jech.bmj.com/content/jech/53/3/149.full.pdf; (5) Interventions for varicose veins and leg oedema in pregnancy
Cochrane Systematic Review, 24 January 2007, https://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD001066.pub2/abstract; (6) Compression stockings prophylaxis of emergent varicose veins in pregnancy: a prospective randomised controlled study Eva Thaler, Renate Huch, Albert Huch, Roland Zimmermann, https://smw.ch/journalfile/view/article/ezm_smw/en/smw.2001.09805/013a194404ab66acfb2c51e51e390435c76e04b3/smw.2001.09805.pdf/rsrc/jf

Does working in a standing position favour the appearance of varicose veins?
(1)A Review of Familial, Genetic, and Congenital Aspects of Primary Varicose Vein Disease, Muzaffar A. Anwar, Kyrillos Adesina Georgiadis, Joseph Shalhoub, Chung S. Lim, Manjit S. Gohel, and Alun H. Davies 1 Aug 2012https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCGENETICS.112.963439Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics. 2012;5:460–466, https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/full/10.1161/CIRCGENETICS.112.963439;; (2)The epidemiology of varicose veins. A survey in western Jerusalem, J H Abramson, C Hopp, L M Epstein, https://jech.bmj.com/content/35/3/213.short; (3)Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 01 Oct 2000, 26(5):414-420, https://europepmc.org/article/med/11103840; (4) Prolonged standing at work and hospitalisation due to varicose veins: a 12 year prospective study of the Danish population F Tu¨chsen, H Hannerz, H Burr, N Krause, https://oem.bmj.com/content/oemed/62/12/847.full.pdf; (5) Understanding Varicose Veins — Prevention, https://www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-treatments/understanding-varicose-veins-prevention

Are genetics linked with the appearance of varicose veins?
(1) https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/varicose-veins/; (2) A Review of Familial, Genetic, and Congenital Aspects of Primary Varicose Vein Disease, Muzaffar A. Anwar, Kyrillos Adesina Georgiadis, Joseph Shalhoub, Chung S. Lim, Manjit S. Gohel, and Alun H. Davies, 1 Aug 2012, https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/full/10.1161/CIRCGENETICS.112.963439; (3) Risk indicators for varicose veins in forty- to sixty-year-olds in the tampere varicose vein study,Jari O. Laurikka M.D., Ph.D., Tero Sisto M.D., Ph.D., Matti R. Tarkka M.D., Ph.D., Ossi Auvinen M.D., Ph.D. & Matti Hakama Ph.D.
World Journal of Surgery 26, 648–651(2002), https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00268-001-0283-1; (4) Evidence for a genetic role in varicose veins and chronic venous insufficiency J Krysa, G T Jones and A M van Rij Department of Surgery, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, PO Box 913, Dunedin 9053, New Zealand, https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Andre_Van_Rij/publication/221809030_Evidence_for_a_genetic_role_in_varicose_veins_and_chronic_venous_insufficiency/links/09e415112b25fc6b60000000.pdf

Can obesity and overweight result in the outbreak of varicose veins?
(1)https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/varicose-veins/;
(2) Risk indicators for varicose veins in forty- to sixty-year-olds in the tampere varicose vein study,Jari O. Laurikka M.D., Ph.D., Tero Sisto M.D., Ph.D., Matti R. Tarkka M.D., Ph.D., Ossi Auvinen M.D., Ph.D. & Matti Hakama Ph.D.
World Journal of Surgery 26, 648–651(2002), https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00268-001-0283-1; (3)The Epidemiology of Varicose Veins: The Framingham Study, Frederick N.BrandMD, MPHaAndrew L.DannenbergMD, MPHbRobert D.AbbottPhDbWilliam B.KannelMD, MPHa, American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Volume 4, Issue 2, March–April 1988, Pages 96-101, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0749379718312030; (4) Obesity and Impaired Venous Function, A.M.van RijC.S.De AlwisP.JiangR.A.ChristieG.B.HillS.J.DuttonI.A.Thomson, European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Volume 35, Issue 6, June 2008, Pages 739-744, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1078588408000464; (5) Varicose veins, BMJ 2000; 320 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.320.7246.1391 (Published 20 May 2000), https://www.bmj.com/content/320/7246/1391.1.full; (6) Varicose veins of the lower limbs and venous capacitance in postmenopausal women: Relationship with obesity, ArcangeloIannuzziMDa et al., Journal of Vascular Surgery, Volume 36, Issue 5, November 2002, Pages 965-968, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0741521402002641; (7) Obesity and Varicose Veins – the Hidden Problem, https://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/eddie-chaloner/obesity-and-varicose-veins_b_4070851.html?guccounter=1&guce_referrer=aHR0cHM6Ly93d3cuZ29vZ2xlLmNvbS8&guce_referrer_sig=AQAAAIsR-H6up7kqRyuhpgppinnkYd9pxRQzJov_JOf6xVsxmf-TRYGmnO-NU2DXTtS76UHjR6kkEyMDhjKY-CL-uxsxZ4PQZbsGkV0vfOJRDqKNb2ogJXIdOxVxbykVgN6n-1scphx103h0ECAe4uwq7ManBbT2Ojiacs4tOEt9PFhF

Can the birth control pill favour the appearance of varicose veins?
(1) A Review of Familial, Genetic, and Congenital Aspects of Primary Varicose Vein Disease, Muzaffar A. Anwar, Kyrillos Adesina Georgiadis, Joseph Shalhoub, Chung S. Lim, Manjit S. Gohel, and Alun H. Davies, 1 Aug 2012, https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/full/10.1161/CIRCGENETICS.112.963439; (2) Risk indicators for varicose veins in forty- to sixty-year-olds in the tampere varicose vein study,Jari O. Laurikka M.D., Ph.D., Tero Sisto M.D., Ph.D., Matti R. Tarkka M.D., Ph.D., Ossi Auvinen M.D., Ph.D. & Matti Hakama Ph.D.
World Journal of Surgery 26, 648–651(2002), https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00268-001-0283-1; (3) Evidence for a genetic role in varicose veins and chronic venous insufficiency J Krysa, G T Jones and A M van Rij Department of Surgery, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, PO Box 913, Dunedin 9053, New Zealand, https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Andre_Van_Rij/publication/221809030_Evidence_for_a_genetic_role_in_varicose_veins_and_chronic_venous_insufficiency/links/09e415112b25fc6b60000000.pdf; (4) January 7, 2019 / Heart Health
Yes, Your Birth Control Could Make You More Likely to Have a Blood Clot, https://health.clevelandclinic.org/yes-your-birth-control-could-make-you-more-likely-to-have-a-blood-clot/; (5) The Relationship Between Birth Control and Varicose Veins, June 27, 2019, https://www.centerforvein.com/blog/relationship-birth-control-varicose-veins; (6) Does Birth Control Cause Varicose Veins and Blood Clots?, Thursday, 31 August 2017, https://www.veinspecialists.com/blog/birth-control-cause-varicose-veins/; (7) Oral contraceptives, venous thrombosis, and varicose veins ROYAL COLLEGE OF GENERAL PRACTITIONERS’ ORAL CONTRACEPTION STUDY, Journal ofthe Royal College of General Practitioners, July 1978, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2158790/pdf/jroyalcgprac00139-0011.pdf; (8) Birth Control and Varicose Veins(Courtesy)
By DR. VAN CHENG, March 22, 2018, https://www.lajollalight.com/our-columns/sponsored-columnists/sd-ljl-sponsored-columns-sd-vein-institute-birth-control-and-varicose-veins-20180322-htmlstory.html; (9) Do birth control pills cause varicose veins?, Brian Sodoma Morrison Vein, Feb 23, 2017, https://eu.azcentral.com/story/sponsor-story/morrison-vein/2015/05/05/morrison-vein-birth-control-varicose/26935587/

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